Equipment

Contact Angle Measurement (Krüss 100)

Contact Angle Measurement (Krüss 100)

Contact anlgle measurements are used to determine the surface polarity and also the surface energy. Different fluids can be measured. Our standard test liquids are water and diiodomethane, but every other liquid can be attached. The method is also used to determine surface modifications.

Corona-treatment

Corona-treatment

Corona treatment is very common in in-line printing processes of foils and offers a polar surface modification technique for unpolar polymer materials. It attaches oxygen moieties on the surface of the sample and thus improves the lamination and printing properties of the polymer materials for instance. In addition the activation of the polymer surface can be used to attach certain chemical groups in a post-modification process aiming at the manufacture of tailored surface properties.

Size exclusion chromatography (RT-SEC)

Size exclusion chromatography (RT-SEC)

This method, also known as gel permeation chromatography, GPC, is used for analysis of oligomeric and polymeric molecules. In a chromatographic column the molecules are separated according to their molecular size and the fractions derived are detected as they leave the column. Main field of application is the determination of molar mass distributions and the determination of long chain branching of polymers soluble at room temperature.

High temperature size exclusion chromatography (HT-SEC)

High temperature size exclusion chromatography (HT-SEC)

High temperature size exclusion chromatography is used for the determination of molar mass distribution and long chain branching of polymers soluble only at elevated temperatures.
Main field of application is the analysis of polyolefins, e.g. PE, PP, as well as their copolymers made thereof.

LC/MS-System

LC/MS-System


LC-MS/MS is a coupling of two different techniques, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) and mass spectroscopy (MS). HPLC separates molecules according to their different adsorption behaviour and is combined with MS, an additional separation and analytical procedure. Main field of application is the identification of organic stabilizer systems in plastics.
      
Characteristics of the LC-MS/MS system

  • Mass range from m/z 50 up to m/z 2000 amu at a scan rate of at least 5500 amu/s
  • Sensitivity for small molecules in the lower nmol/L range

MS part:

  • 3D Ion trap with automativ gain control to prevent overloading
  • Ion sources: ESI and APCI
  • Ionisation modi: positiv and negativ

HPLC part:

  • Quartary gradient system (flow range: 2 up to 2000 µL/min)
  • Degasser, auto sampler, column oven, photo diode array detector

Preparative fractionation of homo- and copolymers (pTREF)

Preparative fractionation of homo- and copolymers (pTREF)


The "PREP-mc2 plus" system of PolymerChar allows an automated fractionation of polymers according to their molar mass and composition where a maximum of fifteen fractions of the polymer can be obtained in a semi-preparative scale. Fractionation can be carried out in one, or parallel, in two reactors.

Fractionation according to molar mass (homopolymers and copolymers): The polymer is dissolved at a constant temperature in solvent/non-solvent-mixtures of various quality. Fractions of increasing molar mass are obtained and transfered into collecting bottles for further preparation.

Fractionation according to composition (branched homopolymers and copolymers):
At an elevated temperature the polymer is dissolved in an appropriate solvent and the solution obtained subsequently cooled down using a constant temperature gradient. Due to different precipitation or crystallization behaviour of the phases of the polymer, fractions of various degree of branching or composition are obtained. Subsequent heating using discrete temperature steps leads to a successive dissolution of the different phases which are transfered into collection bottles for further preparation.

Temperature Rising Elution Fractionation (TREF)

Temperature Rising Elution Fractionation (TREF)

The PolymerChar TREF 200+ is used to calculate the distribution of side chains and the composition of polymers and copolymers (composition distribution). It is based on the principal that different polymer fractions crystallise differently in solution.


Fractioning occurs in a two-step process. In the crystallisation step, the different polymer fractions form onion-like layers around an inert TREF packing material during cooling. Due to the different crystallisation behaviour of the different fractions, the degree of short chain branching increases with the number of layers.


In the second step the polymer fraction layers are solved at increasing temperature and eluted. The degree of short chain branching of the eluted fractions degreases with increasing temperature. Detection is by means of infra red radiation at constant wavelength.

Nuclear magnetic resonace spectrometer (NMR)

Nuclear magnetic resonace spectrometer (NMR)


The NMR spectrometer (Varian 400 MR) is used for determination of the molecular structure.  It is a high resolution FT-NMR equipped with an autosampler. It allows a lot of automated experiments 1D and 2D experiments covering a variety of nulcei.

Funding by Styria and the European Union.

X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) is a highly sensitive surface analysis technique. The basic idea behind this spectroscopic technique is the determination of the elemental composition as well as chemical and electronical states within the top atomic layers of the samples. Except hydrogen and helium nearly every element can be detected.

XPS spectra itself are gained by irradiation of materials with sufficiently high energy, i.e. X-rays. Consequently, a special form of photoemission is generated. In this process an electron of the inner core shell (K shell) gets excited and leaves the sample. With the determination of the recorded kinetic energy, the binding energy of the electrons ejected can be calculated and thus, the parent element and atomic energy level are determined. By recording the energies of the photoelectrons ejected a spectrum is obtained where peaks corresponding to the energy bands of core levels are displayed.

Specifications:

  • Characterization methods: depth profiling, mapping, insulator analysis
  • Lateral resolution: 30 µm
  • Energy resolution: 0.5 eV
  • Source-defined analysis area: 30 - 400 μm
  • Step size: 5 μm (ensures that the analysis area closely matches the feature to be analyzed)